TDV at Graz, Austria was approached by Ove Arup & Partners for the proven versatility of the software product RM2000 together with its experienced and solution oriented development and consulting staff, giving confidence that all problems, even any not yet known arising ones, can be solved successfully with joint endeavor.Introduction
Stonecutters Bridge, Cable stayed Bridge
Stonecutters Bridge is a 1,596 metre long dual 3-lane high level cable stayed bridge, with a clear span of 1,018 metres. It is a major part of the section of Route 8 between Tsing Yi and Cheung Sha Wan. The bridge is straddling the Rambler Channel at the entrance to the busy Kwai Chung Container port. It is situated at the back-up land of the Container Terminal 8 (CT8) at the eastern side on Stonecutters Island. At the western side it is built on the back-up land formed for Container Terminal 9 (CT9) on Tsing Yi Island. The Stonecutters Bridge was the longest span cable-stayed bridges in the world at design time.Structure
The Stonecutters Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge with a main span of 1018 m, side spans of 298 m, and two single towers of a height of 290 m.
The deck of the main span is a twin girder steel deck, whilst the side spans are concrete; the side spans is built in advance of the cable stay erection to counterbalance and stabilize the slender lightweight main span deck.
Prefabricated cable stays are arranged in a laterally- inclined fan arrangement to maximize the transverse and torsion stability of the main span. They include the world‘s longest bridge stay cable to design date.Global Analysis
Numerical model of the Stonecutters Bridge
The RM2000 program developed by TDV, Austria, has been used for the global analysis of the Stonecutters cable-stayed bridge in the detailed design. The finite element model of the bridge is illustrated in the previous figure. The structural modelling keeps accordance with the planned construction schemes. Each of the stay-cables was divided into 8 sub-elements to consider cable-sag effects rather than approximating this effect by using effective module of elasticity. Other interacting non-linear effects such as P-delta effect, large displacements and shear displacements were also considered in the calculation. Creep and shrinkage effects were calculated according to the CEB/FIP 90 code. The flexibility of the pylon foundations was modelled with spring elements.
Because of the bridge enormous span length, it is subjected to strong wind forces due to its exposed placement. Because of its slenderness and related dynamic behaviour it is no longer sufficient to treat wind gusts and other fluctuations by equivalent static wind forces. Instead different investigation methods developed for such extreme situations were applied to examine the interaction of oncoming wind and bridge.
TDV was not only the provider of the software but also a part of the Consultant team and mainly responsible for the full bridge modelling, construction, stage analysis, optimization of the stressing procedure for cable stay, structural analysis and erection control.